Tuesday, November 8, 2011

Bacon's Shakespeare plays as part of The Great Instauration

Sir Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon was the first-born, unacknowledged son of Queen Elizabeth Tudor and Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester. He was born on Jan. 22nd, 1560-1. Bacon's parents were wed on two separate occasions: once while Queen Mary was on the throne and the two were imprisoned at the Tower, and a second time after Queen Elizabeth's accession to the throne at the house of Lord Pickering in Sept. and three weeks after Dudley's wife, Amy Robsart's, mysterious death. Lady Anne Bacon, wife of Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of England, was the Lady-in-Waiting at the time. The Bacons were given the child at birth to be reared in their home, York House, which was next door to the Queen's palace, York Place. When Francis was about 16 years of age and studying law at Grey's Inn,  he discovered by chance about his royal birth. Queen Elizabeth almost immediately sent him off to the Court of France with Sir Amyas Paulet. After spending three years in the splendid but corrupt court of Henry III, he travelled extensively through Germany, Spain, Italy and other European countries studying their manners, customs, politics, policies and religions. During his travels he learned the art of secret writing, purposeful misprints, watermarks, hieroglyphics, headpieces, tailpieces and symbolic pictures. He was also initiated into the Knights Templars.
At a very young age, twelve or thirteen, while he was attending Cambrige University, he had conceived a plan for "The Reformation of the Whole Wide World." This plan transformed into what he afterward called The Great Instauration. "Bacon's brainchild is his Great Instauration, a project he conceived for the step-by-step restoration of a state of paradise upon earth, but coupled with the illumination of mankind. In other words, whereas mankind was innocently ignorant in the original paradise, in the future paradise all human souls will have reached a state of knowledge of truth. Such illumined knowledge will be one based on experience or practice of the truth, which truth (as all great Masters teach, including Bacon) is love—for it is one thing to speak of love and believe in it, but quite another to really know the truth of it." (www.fbrt.org.uk). 
The Instauration includes six parts: 
1. The Divisions of the Sciences 
2. The New Organon; or Directions concerning the Interpretation of Nature
3. The Phenomena of the Universe; or a Natural Experimental History for the Foundation of Philosophy
4. The Ladder of the Intellect
5. The Forerunners; or Anticipations of the New Philosophy
6. The New Philosophy; or Active Science
You can find this list and Bacon's in-depth description of each part in his "Arguments of the Several Parts."
Headpiece from Francis Bacon's original
edition of The Great Instauration
Bacon struggled in his efforts to convey his knowledge to mankind and he began to have doubts that "it flew too high over their heads." At the time, bear baiting and playhouses were popular. He discovered that he could convey knowledge and information to the general public embedded in plays. On these plays he could not attach his name. To be a playwright in those days was not a reputable occupation. Bacon strove for and obtained a high position at court. If his name was attached to the plays he would be met with opposition and personal discredit. In addition, it would destroy his entire plan for the Great Instauration. A pseudonym was the perfect plan to protect all of these elements. 
William Shakespeaere was an actor from Stratford-upon-Avon. Bacon paid Shakespeare for the use of his name on Bacon's plays. As Shakespeare became weathier, he purchased the largest house in Stratford and a coat of arms for himself. 
Bacon also ensured that his knowledge would endure time for the benefit of future generations. He embedded cyphers into his works for future generations to discover and learn about. He created a secret society in which he entrusted his secrets and knowledge. He created a time capsule that he buried in a vault to be opened in a distant future age.

"I have held up a light in the obscurity of Philosophy, which will be seen centuries after I am dead. It will be seen amidst the erection of Tombs, Theatres, Foundations, Temples, of Orders and Fraternities for nobility and obedience—the establishment of good laws as an example to the World. For I am not raising a Capitol or Pyramid to the Pride of men, but laying a foundation in the human understanding for a holy Temple after the model of the World. For my memory I leave it to Men's charitable speeches, to foreign Nations and the next Ages, and to my own Country after some Time has elapsed." --Francis Bacon, Advancement of Learning, Bk II.

Wednesday, July 6, 2011

Did Queen Elizabeth I become pregnant at age 14?

Thomas Seymour, 1508-1549
Princess Elizabeth aged about 13,
attributed to William Scrots
     Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral of England, was the younger brother of the Protector Edward Seymour to King Edward Tudor, the late King Henry VIII's heir.  Thomas Seymour's sister was King Henry VIII's third wife, which would make Thomas Seymour the uncle to the young King Edward. 
     Thomas Seymour was jealous of his older brother's position as Protector and highly ambitious. After King Henry VIII's death, he began to solicit the marriage of Princess Elizabeth. He was twenty-five years her senior. When that didn't work out, he married the late king's widow, Catherine Parr, who was well taken care of in the king's will. 
King Henry VIII also provided well for both his daughters in his will with a dowry of £10,000 on their marriage and £3,000 a year before their marriage. If either of them were to marry without the consent of the council, they would not only lose their place in the succession but also get a reduced financial provision.
     After Thomas Seymour married Catherine Parr, the young Elizabeth went to live with the newlywed couple at Chelsea. Seymour was a dashing and handsome man who Elizabeth fell for. Undeniably, it must have been an awkward "family" situation: Elizabeth, who was previously on the negotiation table to be Seymour's wife, ended up being his stepdaughter. According to David Starkey in his book, Elizabeth, Seymour "abused his trust; he may even have sexually abused her" [Elizabeth].
     About the time that Catherine became pregnant, things started to become serious between Seymour and Elizabeth. According to Jane Dunn in her book, Elizabeth and Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens, "Seymour would appear in Elizabeth's bedchamber, before she was up and dressed, and tickle her in bed, sometimes slapping her 'upon the Back or on the Buttocks familiarly.' Other times he would open the curtains of her bed and wish her good morning, 'and make as though he would come at her.' " On a separate occasion he appeared "in his Night-Gown, bare-legged in his Slippers." "The modern equivalent of 'bare-legged' is 'without trousers' and the innuendo is the same." (Starkey, Elizabeth, p69).
     "There was an episode in the garden at Hanworth when Seymour remonstrated with Elizabeth over something and then cut to ribbons the black gown she was wearing, revealing her undergarments. Elizabeth explained to her horrified governess, Kat Ashley, that she could do nothing to protect herself because the Queen had been holding her down during the whole process." (Dunn, Elizabeth and Mary, p76).
     Authors Henry Clifford and Edgar Edmund Estcourt wrote an interesting paragraph in their book, The Life of Jane Dormer, Duchess of Feria, p86. Jane Dormer was an English lady who married a Spanish minister. She was one of Queen Mary's household and later resided in Spain after Elizabeth's accession to the throne. "A great lady, who knew her very well, being a girl of twelve or thirteen, told me that she was proud and disdainful, and related to me some particulars of her scornful behaviour, which much blemished the handsomeness and beauty of her person. In King Edward's time, what passed between the Lord Admiral, Sir Thomas Seymour, and her, Dr. Latimer preached in a sermon, and was a chief cause that the Parliament condemned the Admiral. There was a bruit of a child born and miserably destroyed, but could not be discovered whose it was; only the report of the midwife, who was brought from her house blindfold thither, and so returned, saw nothing in the house while she was there, but candle light; only she said, it was the child of a very fair young lady. There was a muttering of the Admiral and this lady, who was then between fifteen and sixteen years of age."
     Shortly before Catherine Parr gave birth to a daughter, she had come upon her husband and Elizabeth in an embrace. According to Burghley State Papers, p.96,  the treasurer Thomas Parry said, "I do remember also, [Mrs. Ashley] told me, that the Admiral loved [Elizabeth] but too well, and had so done a good while; and that the Queen was jealous of her and him, in so much that, one Time the Queen, suspecting the often Access of the Admiral to the Lady Elizabeth's Grace, came suddenly upon them, where they were all alone, (he having her in his Arms:) wherefore the Queen fell out, both with the Lord Admiral, and with her Grace also." Not long after Elizabeth was sent away to live, Catherine Parr died in childbirth. At this point Seymour ambitiously renewed his interest in a marriage proposal to Elizabeth. "It was reported, not only that she was pregnant, which she declared to be "a shameful schandler," (Stat. of Realm, iv. 90) "but also that she bore him a child." (The History of England, John Lingard, Vol. V, p.273, 1883.) 
     "Her governess was bribed; her own affections were won; but a clandestine marriage would, by the will of her father, have annulled her right to the succession; and means were devised to extort what otherwise would not be granted, the consent of the council. For this purpose the admiral sought the friendship of the discontented among the nobility.  . . . his nephew was taught to look with a jealous eye on the ambition of the protector." (Ibid. p.274). 
     Thomas Seymour was found guilty of thirty-three charges of treason and beheaded at the Tower on 20 March 1549.

Monday, May 23, 2011

York House or York Place?

     "Francis Bacon, the Glory of his Age and Nation, the Adorner and Ornament of Learning, was borne in York House or York Place in the Strand, on the two-and-twentieth day of January in the year of Our Lord, 1560 [i.e., 1561]." The Life of The Right Honourable Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Viscount St. Alban by William Rawley.

     "In this pregnantly enigmatical sentence, Dr. Rawley begins his short biography of Francis Bacon. It was the first sketch of his life to be published in this country (1657), thirty-one years after his mysterious death in 1626. Dr. Rawley knew him intimately and personally. He had lived with him for years. He was his chaplain and private confidant. He was familiar with the secrets of his birth, life and death. He therefore speaks with authority; and everything he says respecting his master is worthy of our earnest study. Dr. Rawley, moreover, warns the reader that he is not going to publish all he knows in clear, set terms, for he says, 'I shall not tread too near upon the heels of truth.'
      "What, then does Dr. Rawley mean to infer when he wrote that 'Francis Bacon was born in York House or York Place?'
      "He was giving us a straight hint of the utmost importance, without which consideration the life of Francis Bacon cannot be justly estimated or adequately appraised. If we fail to take the hint we can never hope to understand Francis Bacon. This is what Dr. Rawley wants you to consider: York House was the home of Sir Nicholas Bacon. York Place was the Palace of Queen Elizabeth. The inference that Francis Bacon's friend and confidant wishes you to draw is that his birth is shrouded in mystery; He was either born in York House the son of Lady Bacon or he was born in the Royal Palace a Tudor Prince, his mother being the Virgin Queen Elizabeth." Francis Bacon's Personal Life Story by Alfred Dodd, p44.

Wednesday, January 5, 2011

Promus of Formularies and Elegancies by Francis Bacon

The Promus of Formularies and Elegancies is a personal and private notebook containing a collection of phrases and terms written in Francis Bacon's own handwriting. "Promus" means larder or storehouse and this notebook seems to have been a collection of words to be used at a later time in some other literary work. Bacon wrote his notes in several different languages throughout his notebook. The original manuscript of Bacon's Promus is at the British Museum in the Harleian Collection (No. 7,017). We deduce that it was written about 1594-6, because folio 85 is dated December 5, 1594 and folio 114 is dated January 27, 1595. Pictured here is folio 85 showing Bacon's handwriting, its date, and the translation. This notebook was unknown to the public for about two hundred years, until Mrs. Henry Pott reproduced and published it for the first time in 1883. 
Mrs. Henry Pott

What is so significant about Francis Bacon's notebook is that the terms and phases in his notebook appear in the plays attributed to William Shakespeare and additionally in the known, acknowledged works of Bacon. 

Edward D. Johnson, from his book, The Shaksper Illusion, says, "Francis Bacon's Promus is by itself sufficient evidence to show that the man who wrote the Promus also wrote the "Shakespeare" Plays. The most important evidence in the Promus is the word ALBADA, Spanish for good dawning (Folio 112).  This expression good dawning' only appears once in English print, namely, in the play of King Lear where we find "Good dawning to thee friend," Act 2, Scene 2. This word ALBADA is in the Promus 1594-96 and King Lear was not published until the 1600's. If Will Shaksper had not seen the Promus, and as he could not read Spanish, it would mean that some friend had found this word ALBADA, meaning good dawning and told Shaksper about it, and that Shaksper then put the word into King Lear, which sounds highly improbable. A part of one of the folios in the Promus is devoted by Bacon to the subject of salutations such as good morrow, good soir, good matin, bon jour, good day. From this it would appear that Bacon wished to introduce these salutations into English speech. These notes were made in the Promus in 1596 and it is a remarkable coincidence that in the following year 1597 the play of Romeo and Juliet was published containing some of these salutations, and they afterwards appeared in other "Shakespeare" plays, good morrow being used 115 times; good day, 15 times; and good soir (even), 12 times. These words are found in the ''Shakespeare'' plays and nowhere else."

The following are just a few examples of the many parallelisms between Bacon's notes in the Promus and lines from the Shakespeare plays: 

Bacon                    A fool's bolt is soon shot          Promus 106
Shakespeare        A fool's bolt is soon shot          Henry V, 3/7

Bacon                    Seldome cometh the better        Promus 472
Shakespeare        Seldome comes the better          Richard III, 2/3

Bacon                    All is not gold that glisters        Promus 477
Shakespeare        All that glisters is not gold        Merchant of Venice, 2/7

Bacon                    All is well that ends well        Promus 949
Shakespeare        All's well that ends well         All's Well That Ends Well

Bacon                    Good wine needs no bush        Promus 517
Shakespeare        Good wine needs no bush        As You Like It, Epilogue

Bacon                    Happy man, happy dole        Promus 940
Shakespeare        Happy man be his dole          Merry Wives of Windsor

Tuesday, December 28, 2010

Did Queen Elizabeth never sign the death warrant of Mary Queen of Scots?

History tells us that Queen Elizabeth signed the death warrant for Mary Queen of Scots, but told her secretary William Davison not to part with the document. Queen Elizabeth suggested on several occasions that Mary should be executed in some more secret way and, frankly, did not want another Queen's blood on her hands. She had Mary Queen of Scots in confinement for almost 20 years because she was hesitating to do anything drastic. History continues to say that Lord Burghley and the privy council decided to carry out the sentence at once and executed Mary on 8th February 1587. Queen Elizabeth was indignant when she received the news of the execution. She directed her wrath on Davison asserting that he did not follow her instructions to hold onto the document. Davison was tried, fined heavily, imprisoned, but later released. The Queen refused to employ him again and he died in 1608 after retiring to Stepney.
Francis Bacon had written a play in cypher called "The Historical Tragedy of Mary Queen of Scots" which contradicts the history books by saying that she did not sign the death warrant at all. An excerpt from this play is as follows:

Act V, Scene 1.--Palace of the Queen, Elizabeth and train.
     Q.E. "Fie, what a slug is Warwick, he comes not To tell us whether they will that she shall die or no. Ah! In good time here comes the sweating lord." (Enter Warwick.)
He announces the decision of "guilty." Enter Lords of Council; they present Elizabeth the warrant for Mary's death. She does not sign it.
     Q.E. "My lord, I promise to note it cunningly; But here come the ambassadors of our brothers of France and Spain."
Enter ambassadors, who plead for the life of Mary.
Scene 2.--Street in London. Enter Burleigh and Secretary of the Queen (Davison); met by Leicester. All enter a public house.
Scene 3.--Private room; Burleigh and Leicester force the Secretary to forge the Queen's name to the warrant for Mary's execution.

So which is true? Did Elizabeth really sign the document but use Davison as the scapegoat? She feared that Spain and France would combine forces to overthrow her reign and the death of Mary would be an event to initiate such forces. One would have to closely examine this signature with a signature known to be Queen Elizabeth's to determine if this one was indeed forged.

Monday, November 8, 2010

Was Amy Robsart's death suicide, accident or murder?

Amy Robsart was the wife of Robert Dudley. They married in 1550. She lived at Cumnor Place, Berkshire, while her husband attended court as Queen Elizabeth's master of the horse and the Queen's favorite. On Sept. 8th, Amy Robsart was found lying dead at the foot of the staircase with her neck broken. At the time of Amy's death, Queen Elizabeth was pregnant with Francis Bacon, Dudley's child. Elizabeth and Dudley were married previously while incarcerated in the Tower during Queen Mary's reign, but Dudley was married. In order to legitimize the child, the couple would need to marry when Dudley was not tied. Interestingly, the couple marry for a second time about two weeks after Amy Robsart's death. "Francis was born in the January following, Dudley marrying the Queen privately at the House of Lord Pembroke at the end of September." (Dodd, Alfred, The Marriage of Elizabeth Tudor, Rider & Co., London, 1940.)
Alfred Dodd writes in his book, The Marriage of Elizabeth Tudor, "It was generally believed at the time that she was murdered, and that Dudley, if not Elizabeth herself, was an accessory to the crime. This belief receives some support from certain discoveries made in the archives at Simancas, which indicate that a plot to poison her was actually entered into before her death. (Chambers's Encyclopaedia, Vol. VI, p. 566.)"
Robert Dudley rarely visited his wife and because of his neglect she spiraled into despair and depression. She most likely was aware of Dudley's ambitions and the Queen's high regard for him. In addition, she was said to have been ill with possibly breast cancer. All of these combine to form an unhappy, lonely person. It was a Sunday and she sent all the servants into town for a festival that was happening that day. When they returned, they found her at the bottom of the staircase. Did she throw herself down the stairs in hopes of throwing her life away? Did she just chance to slip and fall? Did Elizabeth's Secretary, William Cecil, Dudley's enemy, start rumors of murder and intentionally loosen the railing spindles in hopes that Amy would lean on them and fall?
Francis Bacon wrote some lines in cypher pertaining to the death of Amy Robsart. The following is an excerpt from Orville Owen's Sir Francis Bacon's Cipher Stories, Vol. II:
"Some did cry, 'Ayme! Ayme!'
'This, by his voice, should be my lord,' said she, And from the great chamber to the landing ran; And thinking the pillars steadfast and firmly stay'd, Did lean upon the rail and there awhile As on a pillory looking through she stood; But it, not capable to sustain a rush Or the impressure of her palm, went down. On the slippery standing She tremblingly a moment stood and cried to heaven; Then from human help exiled, with earnest moan She on the sudden headlong dropt Down, down, down to the hard court beneath, And her neck asunder broke And all the bowels in her body brast."

Sunday, November 7, 2010

Robert Cecil Murdered Queen Elizabeth Tudor

I came across a very interesting account of an incredible story of murder in a cypher written by Francis Bacon. The cypher story tells of how Robert Cecil drugged Queen Elizabeth and then strangled her to death. The cypher story can be found in the book, Sir Francis Bacon's Cipher Stories, Part 2, by Orville W. Owen, pp174-189, Howard Publishing Co., New York, 1894.
The above picture shows Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, (1 June 1563 -- 24 May 1612). who was the son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley. Robert Cecil served Queen Elizabeth as her Secretary of State and he later served James I.
The excerpt I found is as follows: 

". . . At the end her death was miserable, Terrible and revolting to human nature, In that her melancholy desire of life And impatience of sickness Wore the appearance of lunacy."
"Stay a little, your lordship. I think you mentioned that Cecil Rid her of life. Hasten on to the account. Come, come sir! It is unseasonable and puerile hurry To snatch at the first apple that comes within reach; For though it be true that this beast, By the sufferance of the highest King of kings, By the skillful use of poison did disable her, And then by violent means bereft her of life.. . . "
Francis Bacon is having a discourse with the physician who attended Queen Elizabeth. He recounts their conversation in the cypher as follows:
"Didst thou, doctor, hear this singular speech?"
"O, yes, I heard all, and more too. I heard Master Cecil say, 'Let her not live.' Then they come unto me and commanded me to begone. So I yield, being sore dismayed, And go lamenting out. And I fear me That they killed her after I was expelled."
"But, loyall sir, Was not someone else there? Didst thou leave these varlots alone with her?"
"There was a lady, sir, near her."
"Indeed! What may be her name?"
"I did hear her called Grace."
"I sought out this maid And call at her house, which doth stand By Christ Church, and said to her, 'I hear you did chance to see The death of the queen?'"
"Why, sir, why, man, I understand you not. Speak softly. I will be lost, quite lost, If that devil knew mine eyes Did see him slaying her. Who told you , sir?"
"Be patient; I am loathe to tell you Whence it come, But I must know the truth; therefore Dally not with me, But give me the cruel story."
"Sir, give me leave, I beseech you, To show it by some mighty precedent. Some three ages since the king Had a servant that served him Long and faithfully. Well, one night 'T is said, sir, this good man's life Was taken by his foe."
"But how? Say how. Show not how quaint an orator you are, But answer; who was the man?"
"Sir, you that are so shrewd, cannot you guess Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester's name?"
"Upon my soul, They did kill him in bed."
"Thus didst he, our sovereign, With his hands about the circle of her neck, The villain did stifle her, Sealing the sweet breath that was embounded In her beautious clay."
"Did he with his hands Choke his dear lady sovereign?"
"These two eyes beheld this evil murder."
"I pray thee, what did the creature do first?"
"After the physician had hurried out He locked the doors."
"List to me; If the doors were locked and you Shut out, how did you see?"
"I was not shut out. I did not go when they bid us to, But hid myself under the desk That's covered with Turkish tapestry, Which stands in her chamber, Where I saw The whole vile murder committed. O, dear heaven! I saw him cast her on her back, And in spite of her bootless fight, He with his cruel hands Her fair throat did strongly bind. The shamefast band may not be shaken off, Though she strongly struggled Both with foot and hand, And with all the might she had She strove him to withstand and save her life. The vile villain Reviled her, and bathed in blood and sweat The sunshine of her clear countenance First did win away in luckless death. Still did he hold her Till she was still in death. Then when he discovered that his force Her life had reaved, He, like a dead man, frozen stood. Then in a twinkling, all in deadly fear, He ran unto the closed door, The key did turn, rudely thrust it open And did fly from forth the chamber. Behind his back I crouch as he passed by, And with trembling heart Softly slide after him. I fear his roving eye may on me glance, And sir, I thought How easily the villain might Thrust on me the bloody crime. The very thought turned my blood cold. Ah! Woe is me! I might have tried to call for help And save her life."
"A plague on you! Why did you not?"